Multi- and inter-disciplinary approach in studies is an important trend towards strengthening research in Europe and in the world. The article examines a concept of doctoral schools contributing a trans- and inter-disciplinary dimension to postgraduate education. It discusses how educational institutions have to respond to the challenges of providing a high-quality research training environment. The authors show, by using the example of the University of Latvia, that the establishment of doctoral schools at university level is a worthy strategy for higher education institutions as it will give doctoral and master students an opportunity to acquire solid knowledge about subject maters and it will contribute to the creation of a stimulating research environment. The development of analytical skills and specialist knowledge promoted by doctoral schools is a valuable asset in areas where in-depth knowledge of the trans- and inter-disciplinary approach is at the centre of research.