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European Union

European Union Values in the Cohesion Policy

European Union Values in the Cohesion Policy

Authors

Pages

141-151

Abstract

The European Union (EU) has been facing multiple crises recently, e.g. migratory crisis, structural crisis etc. Thus, the process of European integration is at a crossroads. In such turbulent times the questions of common values, standards and their place in the policies have arisen. In the paper, the main focus is put on the analysis of the place of EU values in the Cohesion Policy and impact of current socio-economic challenges on its future shape. The paper is of analytical character and it is based on secondary data, legislation and track of the integration process based on press-releases complemented by author’s participation in the process of implementation of the policy in Poland (advisory role to the executive bodies, expertise etc.). Therefore, this article may be treated as a policy-debate paper.

Innovation P artnership in the European Union – a Chance for Successful Competition with the USA

Innovation P artnership in the European Union – a Chance for Successful Competition with the USA

Authors

Pages

89-102

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present the potential of a new award procedure of public procurement, which is from 18 April 2016 innovation partnership, in the context of successful competition with USA as well as to identify the challenges connected with this procedure. Public administration is the biggest purchaser and may create a huge market for innovative products, works and services. Innovation partnership according to Directives 2014/24/EU and 2014/25/EU is an award procedure which allows to establish a long-term partnership between the contracting authority and economic operators for the development and subsequent purchase of a new, innovative product, service or work which is not yet available on the market. Although, despite the potential of public procurement to spur innovation, the implementation of innovation partnership, has been limited due to considerable challenges associated with the application of innovation procurement in practice. The biggest challenges are associated with the threat of infringement of State aid, intellectual property rights or adjusting the provision of Public Finance Law.

Development of the Product Structure of ECOWAS Merchandise Exports to the European Union for the Period 1995–2016

Development of the Product Structure of ECOWAS Merchandise Exports to the European Union for the Period 1995–2016

Authors

Pages

75-87

Abstract

The Economic Community of West African States is a progressive integration organization, as well as an important trading partner for the EU. Their trade relations are traditionally very close. The product structure of their mutual trade flows is affected by existing economic differences. The EU exports to ECOWAS countries, especially manufactured goods, while ECOWAS countries export primary commodities to the EU market. The EU tries to promote transformation of productive capacities of less developed ECOWAS countries. This should boost the product diversification of their merchandise exports, and thus improve the stability of their export revenues, which is necessary for their inclusive and sustainable growth and development. The EU intends to base their trade relations on the Economic Partnership Agreement establishing a free trade area. However, it has not come in force yet. The aim of this paper is to analyse the product structure of ECOWAS exports to the European Union and to identify basic shifts in this structure for the 1995–2016 period. Conclusions of the paper are based on a review of relevant official documents, scientific sources, as well as on own analysis of statistical data concerning ECOWAS-EU trade flows.

The Eastern Partnership: A Policy Striving at Building Good Neighbourhoodliness?

The Eastern Partnership: A Policy Striving at Building Good Neighbourhoodliness?

Authors

Pages

5-23

Abstract

The Eastern Partnership of the European Union, launched in 2008 on the initiative of Poland and Sweden, has the characteristics of a very complex policy addressed to three Eastern European countries – Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine, and to three South-Eastern European countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. The complexity of relations rises from the geographical, historical and geopolitical backgrounds. At the same time, these relations are imbued with various complications of internal and external nature. Considering these unusual, but present, complications, the article makes a retrospective of adopted acts that refer to the Eastern Partnership: The Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council “Wider Europe – Neighbourhood: A New Framework for Relations with our Eastern and Southern Neighbours” and the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council “Eastern Partnership”. A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy: “Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe” brings a new impetus in the framework of cooperation relations between the European Union and Eastern Partnership states. The relations are scrutinised through the prism of the neighbourhood policy and the Eastern Partnership policy. Positive and less positive results are revealed, accompanied by inherent challenges; all these serving as a kind of food for positive thinking in building resilience in the Eastern Europe. Relevant matter-of-fact examples are given from all Eastern Partnership countries and the way to discuss them. Open conclusions provide issues to be re-visited (revised) and several recommendations.

Migration from Sub-Saharan Africa’s Countries to the European Union Member States: Do the Prospects for Better Economic Well-Being Matter?

Migration from Sub-Saharan Africa’s Countries to the European Union Member States: Do the Prospects for Better Economic Well-Being Matter?

Authors

Pages

79-92

Abstract

International migration is not a new phenomenon. However, because of a growing number of people coming from less developed countries to the more developed ones migration has become a serious challenge creating a need for new approaches how to cope with it. International migration can be interpreted in light of both positive and negative consequences. Migration from Sub-Saharan countries to the European Union Member States has been seen by populist politicians and thus the media as a threat for European future. Therefore, most migrants coming to Europe are considered by general public to be economic migrants looking for better living conditions. However, unacceptable living conditions in many Sub-Saharan countries can be understood as violations of basic human rights and thus these immigrants have to be regarded as refugees. The aim of the paper is to describe trends in the number of asylum applicants coming to the EU Member States from Sub-Saharan Africa, and to assess if the prospects for better economic well-being can explain differing number of asylum applicants registered in the EU Member States. Conclusions are based on a review of relevant academic literature as well as on own statistical analysis done for the 2008–2017 period.

Stages of the European Union Integration and its “Vertical” Dimension Towards Africa

Stages of the European Union Integration and its “Vertical” Dimension Towards Africa

Authors

Pages

93-106

Abstract

Th e paper is focused on the future of the EU, the lessons learned from its own experience, and its role in the geographical area of Africa, Mediterranean, and Europe. Th e conceptual framework is based on the Th eory of Economic Integration, the Th eory of Optimum Currency Areas, the Th eory of European Monetary Unifi cation, and the Economic Integration in the developing countries. Th e paper illustrates EU’s rich experiences on issues such as legitimacy and security, monetary union, real convergence, social cohesion, and fiscal union. Additionally, the paper argues that one of the main strategies of the EU is the development of the so-called “vertical” dimension, to build a strong regional integration North-South to ensure greater security and economic development.

The Eastern Borders of the European Union in the Field of Migration

The Eastern Borders of the European Union in the Field of Migration

Authors

Pages

5-21

Abstract

The paper explores the characteristics and the significance of the European Union’s eastern border in regular and irregular migration processes considering that migration is on the top of the European Union’s agenda as well as of the United Nations. It focuses on problematic and positive aspects of migration issues at the eastern border of the European Union. The investigation pays attention to European acts on migration policy and law, eastern border countries and neighbours of the European Union; it analyses dimensions of the European Union’s eastern border, migration challenges of the eastern border route, enhancement of migration management at the eastern border through the use of diverse instruments such as the European neighbourhood policy, the Eastern Partnership, the European Union–Russia relations, the Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy and the Eastern Borders’ Risk Analysis Network. Migration at the eastern border of the European Union is also marked by the concepts of “Schlechtegranzen” and “Rechtegrenzen”. The results and conclusions point out relevant issues that are peculiar to the eastern border of the European Union in terms of migration challenges and migration management.

Integration with the European Union Without Membership: Finding the Best Models

Integration with the European Union Without Membership: Finding the Best Models

Authors

Pages

47-67

Abstract

The article focuses on the relationship between the EU and other states situated on the European continent. The EU has to deal with various groups of states, which are characterised by different attitudes towards the Union. Some of them seek membership in the future, whereas others do not need it, but would like to engage in closer economic cooperation. Besides, growing regional powers aspire to play a significant role in Europe’s development, which is why they strive for equal partnership with the EU. The mail goal of the paper is to find the best models of cooperation between the EU with the aforementioned groups of European countries.

The Need for Dialogue between the European Union and the Arab League

The Need for Dialogue between the European Union and the Arab League

Authors

Pages

63-76

DOI
10.51149/ROEA.1.2020.6
Abstract

In  recent  years  the  relations  between  the  Arab  League  and  the  European  Union  have  not  been  particularly close. It resulted from both the limited activity of the League, as well as other directions of  foreign  policy  implemented  by  the  EU.  Changes  that  have  taken  place  in  the  international  balance of power (e.a. the Arab’s Spring, increased Chinese interest in Arab states) should be factors prompting the European Union to undertake a more intensive dialogue with the Arab League. Both the  EU  and  the  Arab  League  have  many  common  interests,  and  the  refugee  problem  seems  to  be  one  of  the  most  important.  From  the  EU’s  point  of  view,  refugees  are  a  serious  social,  economic  and  political  problem  as  well  as  an  obstacle  to  sustainable  development  for  the  member  states  of  the Arab League.

Overall Trendsin the Migration Processesin the Republic of Moldova:the Mills of the God Grinding Slowly?

Overall Trendsin the Migration Processesin the Republic of Moldova:the Mills of the God Grinding Slowly?

Authors

Pages

67-77

DOI
10.51149/ROEA.2.2020.5
Abstract

This  paper  discusses  the  key  characteristics  of  the  migration  situation  and  overall  trends  in  the  migration processes in the Republic of Moldova. Practically, many of the former Soviet republics were faced with serious social and economic problems. Economical systems of new post-soviet countries were  ill-equipped  to  handle  new  borders  and  customs  barriers.  As  the  “multi-national  state”  was  dissolved, the majority of new post-Soviet states struggled with ethnic conflicts, which triggered the first  wave  of  the  so-called  “great  escape”  of  the  population.  In  Moldova’s  case,  the  Transnistrian  conflict was a classic example of such a civilizational crisis, the solution to which was not found to date. The first wave of the “great escape” was triggered by the hard situation of the national identity formation.  The  “second  wave”  was  a  reaction  to  an  increasingly  poor  economic  situation.  Today,  the formation of the “third wave of great escape” becomes increasingly more evident – perhaps the last one for the Moldavian state. This “third wave” is also connected with integrational processes, mostly  in  the  European  Union  countries.  The  second  part  of  the  article  analyses  the  relationship  between the economic development of the Republic of Moldova and the current migration situation. In general, despite a number of positive changes, such as the reduction of the critical high level of dependence of the economy on financial remittances of Moldovan migrant workers, the level of such dependence  remains  very  high,  and  the  speed  of  development  of  the  Moldovan  economy,  on  the  contrary, is significantly reduced. The paper concludes with four main factors that, in the author’s opinion, are critical for the analysis of the current negative migration situation in the Republic of Moldova,  as  well  as  those  that  may  become  key  factors  that  will  have  a  significant  impact  on  the strengthening of the negative socio-economic situation in the country and the systemic crisis in the future 2035–2040.