Baner czasopisma
The EU Member States’ Border Restriction Versus COVID-19





Since February 2020, a number of EU Member States and Schengen associated countries have declared emergencies and introduced epidemiological measures. These included restrictions on freedom of movement: border closures, temporary internal border controls or temporary bans on all non-essential travel. The author argues that since the Member States had recently used border restrictions to restrict the (visible) migration, border restriction as means fighting the (invisible) pandemic is only another precedent on behalf of Member States’ unwillingness to preserve freedom of movement when it contradicts internal policies, and underlines the need for Schengen’s reform. The article argues that although justifying derogations from the principles of border-free area is in the hand of the Member States, the lack of coordination has created the exact the same situation as during the migration crisis. Though the reintroduced border restrictions of 2015 targeted irregular migrants, the present ones affected EU citizens, too. The research aims to analyze the means and margins that the situation created by the pandemic contrasts to the restrictive border measures introduced during the migration crisis. The final research objective is to emphasize the need for cooperation in this policy field and the need of an integrated approach. 

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Case law
C-33/07 Jipa v Ministerul Administratiei si Internelor, Directia Generala de Pasapoarte Bucuresti
See C-304/14 Secretary of State for the Home Department v CS
C-482/01 Orfanopoulos and Others v Land Baden-Württenberg
Case C-140/12 Pensionsversicherungsanstalt v Peter Brey
Case C-41/74 van Duyn
Case 30/77 Bouchereau, 
Case-482/01 and C-493/01 Orfanopoulos and Oliveri 
Case-441/02 Commission v Germany 
Case-50/06 Commission v Netherlands

EU law
Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union OJ C 326, 26.10.2012, 
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union OJ C 326, 26.10.2012,
European Commission 2020b, Guidelines concerning the exercise of the free movement of workers during COVID-19 outbreak (2020/C 102 I/03) C/2020/2051, OJ C 102I , 30.3.2020, p. 12–14
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European Commission 2020d. COVID-19 Guidelines for border management measures to protect health and ensure the availability of goods and essential services (2020/C 86 I/01)
European Commission 2020e. Guidelines on seasonal workers in the EU in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak (2020/C 235 I/01).
Joint European Roadmap towards lifting COVID-19 containment measures
European Commission 2020f. Draft Council Recommendation on a coordinated approach to the restriction of free movement in response to the COVID-19 pandemic
Decision No 1082/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2013 on serious cross-border threats to health. 
Regulation (EU) 2016/399 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2016 on a Union Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code) (codification)
REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL on the implementation of Directive 2003/86/EC on the right to family reunification COM/2019/162 final
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National Law
Hungary, Governmental Decree no. 81/2020 on extraordinary measures relating to the state of danger declared for the protection of health and lives and for the restoration of national economy (81/2020. (IV. 1.) Korm. rendelet az egészség és élet megóvása, valamint a nemzetgazdaság helyreállítása érdekében elrendelt veszélyhelyzettel kapcsolatos rendkívüli intézkedésekről), 1 April 2020, Section 2, available at:

WHO – World Health Organization 
Online document register of the EU Council public-register/